Guide for Authors

  • A manuscript submitted to the journal must not be published anywhere, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere.
  • The journal expects that authors would authorize one of them to correspond with the Journal for all matters related to the manuscript.
  • On submission, editors review all submitted manuscripts initially for suitability for formal review.
  • Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or technical flaws or lack of a significant message are rejected before proceeding for formal peer-review.
  • Manuscripts that are unlikely to be of interest to the Journal are also liable to be rejected at this stage itself.
  • Manuscripts that are found suitable for publication are sent to two or more expert reviewers.
  • During submission, the contributor is requested to provide names of two or three qualified reviewers who have had experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but this is not mandatory.
  • The reviewers should not be affiliated with the same institutes as the contributor/s. However, the selection of these reviewers is at the sole discretion of the editors.
  • The journal follows a double-blind review process, wherein the reviewers and authors are unaware of each other’s identity.
  • Every manuscript is also assigned to a member of the editorial team (section editor), who based on the comments from the reviewers takes a final decision on the manuscript.
  • The comments and suggestions (acceptance/ rejection/ amendments in manuscript) received from reviewers are conveyed to the corresponding author.
  • If required, the author is requested to provide a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments and submit a revised version of the manuscript. This process is repeated till reviewers and editors are satisfied with the manuscript.
  • Manuscripts accepted for publication are copy edited for grammar, punctuation, print style, and format.
  • Page proofs are sent to the corresponding author. The corresponding author is expected to return the corrected proofs within 7 days. It may not be possible to incorporate corrections received after that period. 

Conflicts of Interest:

All authors must disclose any conflicts of interest they may have with the publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented.

Submission of Manuscripts:

The submitted manuscripts that are not as per the “Instructions to Authors” would be returned to the authors for technical correction, before they undergo editorial/ peer-review.

[1] Title Page/First Page File/covering letter: includes

  • The type of manuscript (original article, short study, case report, review article, new perspective, Education Forum, Post-graduate section, Letter to editor, etc.)
  • title of the manuscript
  • names of all authors/ contributors (with their highest academic degrees, designation, and affiliations) and name(s) of the  department(s) and/ or institution(s) to which the work should be credited
  • The name, address, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs.
  • Conflicts of Interest of each author/ contributor. A statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest.
  • Source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these;
  • Acknowledgement, if any. One or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging
  • If the manuscript was presented as part of a meeting, the organization, place, and exact date on which it was read. A full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work. Any such work should be referred to specifically, and referenced in the new paper. Copies of such material should be included with the submitted paper, to help the editor decide how to handle the matter.

[2] Article file:

  • The manuscript must not contain any mention of the authors' names or initials or the institution at which the study was done or acknowledgments.
  • Page headers/running titles can include the title but not the authors' names.
  • Do not incorporate images in the file.
  • The pages should be numbered consecutively, in the upper right corner, beginning with the first page of the blinded article file.

[3] Images:

  • Submit good-quality images.
  • Legends for the figures/images should be included.

1- Original articles:

  • The text of original articles amounting to up to 3000 words (excluding Abstract, references, and Tables) should be divided into sections with the headings Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, References, Tables, and Figure legends.
  • Abstract: Structured (Background, aim, methods, results, conclusion), maximum 250 words
  • Introduction: State the purpose and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. 
  • Materials and Methods: It should include and describe the following aspects:


  • 1-When reporting experiments on animals indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed and approval of the ethical committee was taken.

  • Animal experimental procedures should be as humane as possible and the details of anesthetics and analgesics used should be clearly stated.

  • The journal will not consider any ethically unacceptable paper.

  • A statement on ethics committee permission and ethical practices must be included in all research articles under the ‘Materials and Methods section.

  • 2-When reporting studies on human beings indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional). For prospective studies involving human participants, authors are expected to mention about approval of an ethical committee (regional/ national/ institutional or independent Ethics Committee or Review Board) obtaining informed consent from adult research participants, and obtaining assent for children aged over 7 years participating in the trial. The age beyond which assent would be required could vary as per regional and/ or national guidelines. Ensure confidentiality of subjects by desisting from mentioning participants’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material.

Study design:

  • Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population.
  • Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration.
  • Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, and assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups).


  • Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals).
  • Authors should report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial).
  • When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them.
  • Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'.
  • Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols.
  • Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048).
  • For all P values include the exact value (up to two decimal points) and not less than 0.05 (unless it is less than 0.001). 
  • Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables, and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals.


  • Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first.
  • Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations.
  • Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support.
  • Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.


  • Include a summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); comparison with available studies, Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research).
  • Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses.
  • Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed.
  • New hypotheses may be stated if needed, however, they should be clearly labeled as such.
  • About 30 references and up to five tables/figures can be included. These articles generally should not have more than six authors.

2- Review Articles and Education Forum:

It is expected that review articles would be written by individuals who have done substantial work on the subject or are considered experts in the field.

  • A summary of the work done by the contributor(s) in the field of review should accompany the manuscript.
  • Those authors who do not have sufficient experience in a specified field, but still want to highlight new or interesting findings in that field may write for an education forum.
  • The section titles would depend upon the topic reviewed. Authors submitting review articles should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.
  • The journal expects the contributors to give post-publication updates on the subject of review or education forum.
  • The update should be brief, covering the advances in the field after the publication of the article, and should be sent as a letter to the editor, as and when major development occurs in the field.
  • These articles can be authored by up to four authors.

3- Letter to the Editor:

  • These should be short and decisive observations.
  • They should preferably be related to articles previously published in the Journal or views expressed in the journal.
  • They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation.
  • The letter could have up to 500 words, one table/figure, and 5 references.
  • It could be generally authored by not more than four authors. 


All acknowledgments (if any) should be included at the very end of the manuscript before the references. Anyone who contributed to the research or manuscript, but who is not a listed author, should be acknowledged (with their permission).


  • References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text (not in alphabetic order).
  • Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in superscript with square bracket after the punctuation marks.
  • References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.
  • Use the style of the example below, which is based on the formats used by the NLM in Index Medicus.
  • The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. Use the complete name of the journal for non-indexed journals.
  • Avoid using abstracts as references.
  • Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.
  • Avoid citing a "personal communication" unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text.

Articles in Journals:

  1. Standard journal article (for up to six authors): Shukla N, Husain N, Agarwal GG, Husain M. Utility of cysticercus fascioliasis antigen in Dot ELISA for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Indian J Med Sci 2008;62:222-7.

  2. Standard journal article (for more than six authors): List the first six contributors followed by et al. 
    Nozari Y, Hashemlu A, Hatmi ZN, Sheikhvatan M, Iravani A, Bazdar A, et al. Outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients without major risk factors and patients with at least one major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Indian J Med Sci 2007; 61:547-54

  3. Volume with supplement: Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1:275-82. 

  4. Issue with supplement: Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women's psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996; 23(1, Suppl 2):89-97. 

Books and Other Monographs:

  1. Personal author(s): Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996. 

  2. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author: Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. 

  3. Chapter in a book: Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors. Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. pp. 465-78. 

Electronic Sources as reference:

  • Journal article on the Internet

    • Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from:

  • Monograph on the Internet

    • Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

  • Homepage/Website

    • [homepage on the Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

  • Part of a homepage/Web site

    • American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:


  • Tables should be self-explanatory and should not duplicate textual material.
  • Tables with more than 10 columns and 25 rows are not acceptable.
  • Number tables, in Arabic numerals, consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each.
  • Use only horizontal rules for the tables; to separate the column headings. No vertical rules should be used in the tables. Make sure that all columns and rows are aligned.
  • Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading.
  • Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table.
  • Obtain permission for all fully borrowed, adapted, and modified tables and provide a credit line in the footnote.

Illustrations (Figures):

  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.
  • Labels, numbers, and symbols should be clear and of uniform size.
  • Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background and should be marked neatly with transfer type or by tissue overlay and not by pen.
  • Titles and detailed explanations should be written in the legends for illustrations, and not on the illustrations themselves.
  • When graphs, scatter-grams, or histograms are submitted the numerical data on which they are based should also be supplied.
  • Send digital X-rays, and digital images of histopathology slides, where feasible.
  • The photographs and figures should be trimmed to remove all the unwanted areas.
  • If photographs of individuals are used, their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
  • If a figure has been published elsewhere, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. A credit line should appear in the legend for such figures.
  • Legends for illustrations: Type or print out legends (maximum 40 words, excluding the credit line) for illustrations using double spacing, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale (magnification) and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.
  • The Journal reserves the right to crop, rotate, reduce, or enlarge the photographs to an acceptable size. 

Sending a revised manuscript :

Authors are expected to mark the changes as underlined or colored text in the article

Reprints and proofs :

Journal provides no free printed reprints. Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.

Proofs will be sent to the corresponding authors by email approximately 2 weeks before the publication date.

Checklist  :

Covering letter

  • Signed by all contributors
  • Previous publication/presentations mentioned
  • Source of funding mentioned
  • Conflicts of interest disclosed


  • Last name and given name provided along with Middle name initials (where applicable)
  • Author for correspondence, with the e-mail address provided
  • Identity not revealed in the paper except on title page (e.g. name of the institute in Methods, citing the previous study as 'our study', names on figure labels, name of the institute in photographs, etc.)

Presentation and format

  • Times new roman, 14 font, Double spacing
  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
  • Page numbers included in the right upper corner
  • Title page contains all the desired information
  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
  • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript
  • Abstract provided (structured abstract of 250 words for original articles, unstructured abstracts of about 150 words for all other manuscripts excluding letters to the Editor)
  • Keywords provided (three or more)
  • Headings and sub-headings in title case (not ALL CAPITALS)
  • References according to the journal's instructions, punctuation marks checked

Language and grammar

  • Uniformly American English
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords, and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 are spelt out Numerals at the beginning of the sentence are spelt out
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors
  • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country).
  • Species names should be in italics

Tables and figures

  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
  • Actual numbers from which graphs are drawn, provided
  • Figures necessary and of good quality (color)
  • Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
  • Labels pasted on the back of the photographs (no names written)
  • Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
  • Credit notes for borrowed figures/tables provided

Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote

The Article Processing Charge (APC):

As an Open Access title, publishing an article in this journal requires an Article Processing Charge (APC) that will be billed to the submitting author following acceptance.

The Article Processing Charge for the journal is:

for the Egyptians

  • 1500 Egyptian pounds
  • For more than 15 pages, an amount of 20 Egyptian pounds is paid for each page.

For non-Egyptians

  • 200 US dollars for Egyptians working abroad and for non-Egyptians, even if one of the researchers is inside Egypt.
  • For more than 15 pages, an amount of 5 US dollars is to be paid for each page.